Alps Map: Travel Maps International Adventure Map (National Geographic Adventure Map)

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Alps Map: Travel Maps International Adventure Map (National Geographic Adventure Map)

Alps Map: Travel Maps International Adventure Map (National Geographic Adventure Map)

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The population of the region is 14million spread across eight countries. [6] On the rim of the mountains, on the plateaus, and on the plains the economy consists of manufacturing and service jobs whereas in the higher altitudes and the mountains farming is still essential to the economy. [152] Farming and forestry continue to be mainstays of Alpine culture, industries that provide for export to the cities and maintain the mountain ecology. [153] Cebon, Peter, et al. (1998). Views from the Alps: Regional Perspectives on Climate Change. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-03252-0 The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in an 800km (500mi) arc (curved line) from east to west and is 200km (120mi) in width. The mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5km (1.6mi). [15] The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, and stretching eastward through mid and southern Switzerland. The range continues onward toward Vienna, Austria, and southeast to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. [16] [17] [18]

Official Timetable" (in English, German, French, Italian, and Romansh). Bern: Swiss Federal Office for Transport. Archived from the original on June 27, 2022 . Retrieved May 11, 2016. Mershman, Francis. "St. Maurice", The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 10. New York City: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 6 March 2013 Hunters crossed the Alps already 1000s of years ago and copper mining cleared large areas of forest from the 18th century onwards. The Romans started clearing the forest even earlier (8-14 Y.H.) to build roads and irrigation systems ( suonen) in the Swiss Alps like for example in the canton of Valais. The Swiss Alps influence the climate Prevas, John. (2001). Hannibal Crosses The Alps: The Invasion Of Italy And The Punic Wars. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81070-1 Incidentally, there has also recently been a Bernina Express bus that runs from Lugano to Tirano. Glacier ExpressHalbrook, Stephen P. (2006). The Swiss and the Nazis: How the Alpine Republic Survived in the Shadow of the Third Reich. Havertown, PA: Casemate. ISBN 978-1-932033-42-7 The extreme and stressful climatic conditions give way to the growth of plant species with secondary metabolites important for medicinal purposes. Origanum vulgare, Prunella vulgaris, Solanum nigrum, and Urtica dioica are some of the more useful medicinal species found in the Alps. [91] Preserved internal alpine forest and meadow, Vanoise National Park

The Rhône is second to the Nile as a freshwater source to the Mediterranean Sea; the river begins as glacial meltwater, flows into Lake Geneva, and from there to France where one of its uses is to cool nuclear power plants. [68] The Rhine originates in a 30km 2 (12sqmi) area in Switzerland and represents almost 60% of water exported from the country. [68] Tributary valleys, some of which are complicated, channel water to the main valleys which can experience flooding during the snowmelt season when rapid runoff causes debris torrents and swollen rivers. [69] The boundary between the Apennines and the Alps is usually taken to be the Colle di Cadibona, at 435m above sea level, above Savona on the Italian coast. In the high villages, people live in homes built according to medieval designs that withstand cold winters. The kitchen is separated from the living area (called the stube, the area of the home heated by a stove), and second-floor bedrooms benefit from rising heat. The typical Swiss chalet originated in the Bernese Oberland. Chalets often face south or downhill and are built of solid wood, with a steeply gabled roof to allow accumulated snow to slide off easily. Stairs leading to upper levels are sometimes built on the outside, and balconies are sometimes enclosed. [155] [156] Herding sheep in AustriaThe Australian Alps have been classified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area. The range's montane forests and woodlands support large breeding populations of flame robins and pilotbirds. [6] Insects [ edit ] During the Napoleonic Wars in the late 18th century and early 19th century, Napoleon annexed territory formerly controlled by the House of Habsburg, and the House of Savoy. In 1798, the Helvetic Republic was established, two years later an army across the Great St Bernard Pass. [121] In 1799 the Russian imperial military engaged the revolutionary French army in the Alps, this episode has been recorded as significant achievement in mountain warfare. [122] In October 1799 the troops commanded by Alexander Suvorov were surrounded in the Alps by much larger French troops. The Russian troops broke out, mauled the French troops, and retreated through the Panix Pass. [123] Luca Ermini et al., "Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Tyrolean Iceman," Current Biology, vol. 18, no. 21 (30 October 2008), pp. 1687–1693 The Australian Alps are important for conservation, recreation, and as a water drainage basin, with much of the range's eastern slopes having its runoff diverted artificially into the Murray River and its tributary the Murrumbidgee River through the civil engineering project of the Snowy Mountains Scheme. Gerrard, AJ. (1990) Mountain Environments: An Examination of the Physical Geography of Mountains. Boston: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-07128-4

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